Generic selectors
Exact matches only
Search in title
Search in content
Search in posts
Search in pages
Filter by Categories
15th National Conference of the IAOMFP, Chennai, 2006
Abstract
Abstracts from current literature
Acne in India: Guidelines for management - IAA Consensus Document
Addendum
Announcement
Art & Psychiatry
Article
Articles
Association Activities
Association Notes
Award Article
Book Review
Brief Report
Case Analysis
Case Letter
Case Letters
Case Notes
Case Report
Case Reports
Clinical and Laboratory Investigations
Clinical Article
Clinical Studies
Clinical Study
Commentary
Conference Oration
Conference Summary
Continuing Medical Education
Correspondence
Corrigendum
Cosmetic Dermatology
Cosmetology
Current Best Evidence
Current View
Derma Quest
Dermato Surgery
Dermatopathology
Dermatosurgery Specials
Dispensing Pearl
Do you know?
Drug Dialogues
e-IJDVL
Editor Speaks
Editorial
Editorial Remarks
Editorial Report
Editorial Report - 2007
Editorial report for 2004-2005
Errata
Erratum
Focus
Fourth All India Conference Programme
From Our Book Shelf
From the Desk of Chief Editor
General
Get Set for Net
Get set for the net
Guest Article
Guest Editorial
History
How I Manage?
IADVL Announcement
IADVL Announcements
IJDVL Awards
IJDVL AWARDS 2015
IJDVL Awards 2018
IJDVL Awards 2019
IJDVL Awards 2020
IJDVL International Awards 2018
Images in Clinical Practice
In Memorium
Inaugural Address
Index
Knowledge From World Contemporaries
Leprosy Section
Letter in Response to Previous Publication
Letter to Editor
Letter to the Editor
Letter to the Editor - Case Letter
Letter to the Editor - Letter in Response to Published Article
LETTER TO THE EDITOR - LETTERS IN RESPONSE TO PUBLISHED ARTICLES
Letter to the Editor - Observation Letter
Letter to the Editor - Study Letter
Letter to the Editor - Therapy Letter
Letter to the Editor: Articles in Response to Previously Published Articles
Letters in Response to Previous Publication
Letters to the Editor
Letters to the Editor - Letter in Response to Previously Published Articles
Letters to the Editor: Case Letters
Letters to the Editor: Letters in Response to Previously Published Articles
Medicolegal Window
Messages
Miscellaneous Letter
Musings
Net Case
Net case report
Net Image
Net Letter
Net Quiz
Net Study
New Preparations
News
News & Views
Obituary
Observation Letter
Observation Letters
Oration
Original Article
ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION
Original Contributions
Pattern of Skin Diseases
Pearls
Pediatric Dermatology
Pediatric Rounds
Perspective
Presedential Address
Presidential Address
Presidents Remarks
Quiz
Recommendations
Regret
Report
Report of chief editor
Report of Hon : Treasurer IADVL
Report of Hon. General Secretary IADVL
Research Methdology
Research Methodology
Resident page
Resident's Page
Resident’s Page
Residents' Corner
Residents' Corner
Residents' Page
Retraction
Review
Review Article
Review Articles
Revision Corner
Self Assessment Programme
SEMINAR
Seminar: Chronic Arsenicosis in India
Seminar: HIV Infection
Short Communication
Short Communications
Short Report
Special Article
Specialty Interface
Studies
Study Letter
Supplement-Photoprotection
Supplement-Psoriasis
Symposium - Contact Dermatitis
Symposium - Lasers
Symposium - Pediatric Dermatoses
Symposium - Psoriasis
Symposium - Vesicobullous Disorders
SYMPOSIUM - VITILIGO
Symposium Aesthetic Surgery
Symposium Dermatopathology
Symposium-Hair Disorders
Symposium-Nails Part I
Symposium-Nails-Part II
Tables
Technology
Therapeutic Guidelines
Therapeutic Guidelines - IADVL
Therapeutics
Therapy
Therapy Letter
View Point
Viewpoint
What’s new in Dermatology
View/Download PDF
Net Letter
2019:85:3;348-348
doi: 10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_222_17
PMID: 29667609

A case report of buffalopox: A zoonosis of concern

Ritu Gujarati, Siva Rami Reddy Karumuri, T Naresh Babu, B Janardhan
 Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, Bhaskar Medical College, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Siva Rami Reddy Karumuri
Flat No. 202, Solitaire Banjara Apartments, Road No. 10, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500 034, Telangana
India
How to cite this article:
Gujarati R, Reddy Karumuri SR, Babu T N, Janardhan B. A case report of buffalopox: A zoonosis of concern. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2019;85:348
Copyright: (C)2019 Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology

Sir,

A 30-year-old man, resident of Kanakamamidi village, Telangana State, a milkman and owner of a buffalo herd presented with painful, red papules on the dorsae of hands which later developed into fluid-filled lesions over a period of 10 days. Similar lesions developed on forearms and face in the next 3–4 days. There was continuous throbbing pain over the lesions that got aggravated on working. Patient also reported continuous high-grade fever with chills, myalgia, joint pains, redness of eyes, abdominal pain and diarrhea. On examination the patient was febrile (100°F). Multiple, 1–1.5 cm, firm, discrete, tender epitrochlear, axillary, cervical and preauricular lymph nodes were palpable on both sides. Systemic examination was normal. Cutaneous examination revealed ten nodules of size 1 × 1.5 cm, vesicles (few with central umbilication) and pustules on the dorsae of hands [Figure - 1], fingers, flexor aspect of distal forearms, right preauricular area [Figure - 2], right angle of mandible and right ala of nose. Many were intact and few were oozing serosanguinous fluid. Few erosions and crusts were also seen. There was conjunctival congestion in both the eyes [Figure - 3]. Scalp, trunk, palms, soles, nails, oral cavity and genitals were normal. Two buffaloes in his farm had erosions with serosanguinous discharge and crusting over the teats and udders [Figure - 4]. The routine investigations were unremarkable. Histopathological examination of the pustule from the man [Figure - 5] and [Figure - 6] revealed epidermis with intraepidermal vesicle containing neutrophils with elongation of rete ridges and few degenerated keratinocytes. Cytopathic effects were not seen. The dermis revealed lichenoid infiltrate. DNA polymerase chain reaction, done in both human and buffalo scabs, were positive for buffalopox virus. Patient was treated with oral antibiotics and analgesics for one week which led to improvement in pain and pustules and complete healing of lesions in three weeks.

Figure 1: Multiple umbilicated vesicles and nodules on dorsum of right hand
Figure 2: A pustule over right preauricular area
Figure 3: Conjunctival congestion in both eyes
Figure 4: Erosions with serosanguinous discharge over teats of buffalo
Figure 5: Intraepidermal vesicle formation with inflammatory infiltrates (H and E, ×100)
Figure 6: Red blood cells, neutrophils within the vesicle (H and E, ×400)

Zoonotic diseases affecting humans present uncommonly to the dermatology outpatient department. Buffalopox is a rare disease caused by buffalopox virus, a prototype of member of genus orthopoxvirus, subfamily chordopoxvirinae, family poxviridae and closely related to vaccinia virus.[1],[2] The first recorded incidence of buffalopox occurred in 1934 in Lahore in undivided India.[3] Recently, outbreaks have been reported from villages in Solapur and Kolhapur district, Maharashtra, India.[4] Four outbreaks occurred during 2006–2008 at Nellore (Andhra Pradesh), Aundh (Pune), Aurangabad (Maharashtra) and Sardhar Krishinagar (Gujarat).[5] It affects domestic buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), cattle and humans. Infection occurs in both sporadic and epidemic forms. Lesions in milch animals are localized on teats and udders.[1],[4] Mastitis due to secondary bacterial infection has been reported in 50% of the affected buffaloes. The appearance of lesions in humans handling pox affected buffaloes, attendants and milkers has been reported from time-to-time.[3] Lesions cannot be clinically differentiated from those of other pox viral infections such as milker's nodule, orf and cowpox. Diagnosis can be confirmed by viral isolation in Vero E6 cell monolayers, plaque reduction neutralization test, electron microscopy, A-type inclusion and Ankyrin repeat protein (C18L) gene-specific polymerase chain reaction and counter immunoelectrophoresis.[2],[5] Polymerase chain reaction done in our case was confirmatory. Apart from reported cases, there may be many cases in the community that go unreported. Awareness and identification of this condition is important and control measures must be undertaken including awareness about hand hygiene and use of gloves while milking. In conclusion, we would like to emphasize the possibility of this zoonosis if there are vesicular, pustular, nodular lesions over extremities in an individual whose occupation involves contact with milch animals.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient has given his consent for his images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patient understand that name and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Acknowledgements

  1. Dr. A.V. Krishna Mohan, The Joint Director, Veterinary Biologicals and Research Institute, Shanthi Nagar, Hyderabad - 500 028, India
  2. Dr. Chandra Naik. B. M, Scientist 2 and The Joint Director, Southern Regional Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals, Hebbal, Bengaluru - 560 024, India
  3. Dr. V. Vijay Sreedhar, Prof and HOD, Department of Pathology, Bhaskar Medical College, Yenkapally, Moinabad - 500 075, India
  4. Dr. Sridevi. P, Consultant Dermatopathologist, Dermpath Institute and Research Centre, Hyderabad, India.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References
1.
Damle AS, Gaikwad AA, Patwardhan NS, Duthade MM, Sheikh NS, Deshmukh DG, et al. Outbreak of human buffalopox infection. J Glob Infect Dis 2011;3:187-8.
[Google Scholar]
2.
Goyal T, Varshney A, Bakshi SK, Barua S, Bera BC, Singh RK, et al. Buffalo pox outbreak with atypical features: A word of caution and need for early intervention! Int J Dermatol 2013;52:1224-30.
[Google Scholar]
3.
Singh RK, Hosamani M, Balamurugan V, Bhanuprakash V, Rasool TJ, Yadav MP, et al. Buffalopox: An emerging and re-emerging zoonosis. Anim Health Res Rev 2007;8:105-14.
[Google Scholar]
4.
Gurav YK, Raut CG, Yadav PD, Tandale BV, Sivaram A, Pore MD, et al. Buffalopox outbreak in humans and animals in Western Maharashtra, India. Prev Vet Med 2011;100:242-7.
[Google Scholar]
5.
Bhanuprakash V, Venkatesan G, Balamurugan V, Hosamani M, Yogisharadhya R, Gandhale P, et al. Zoonotic infections of buffalopox in India. Zoonoses Public Health 2010;57:e149-55.
[Google Scholar]

Fulltext Views
434

PDF downloads
192
Show Sections