Generic selectors
Exact matches only
Search in title
Search in content
Search in posts
Search in pages
Filter by Categories
15th National Conference of the IAOMFP, Chennai, 2006
Abstract
Abstracts from current literature
Acne in India: Guidelines for management - IAA Consensus Document
Addendum
Announcement
Art & Psychiatry
Article
Articles
Association Activities
Association Notes
Award Article
Book Review
Brief Report
Case Analysis
Case Letter
Case Letters
Case Notes
Case Report
Case Reports
Clinical and Laboratory Investigations
Clinical Article
Clinical Studies
Clinical Study
Commentary
Conference Oration
Conference Summary
Continuing Medical Education
Correspondence
Corrigendum
Cosmetic Dermatology
Cosmetology
Current Best Evidence
Current View
Derma Quest
Dermato Surgery
Dermatopathology
Dermatosurgery Specials
Dispensing Pearl
Do you know?
Drug Dialogues
e-IJDVL
Editor Speaks
Editorial
Editorial Remarks
Editorial Report
Editorial Report - 2007
Editorial report for 2004-2005
Errata
Erratum
Focus
Fourth All India Conference Programme
From Our Book Shelf
From the Desk of Chief Editor
General
Get Set for Net
Get set for the net
Guest Article
Guest Editorial
History
How I Manage?
IADVL Announcement
IADVL Announcements
IJDVL Awards
IJDVL AWARDS 2015
IJDVL Awards 2018
IJDVL Awards 2019
IJDVL Awards 2020
IJDVL International Awards 2018
Images in Clinical Practice
In Memorium
Inaugural Address
Index
Knowledge From World Contemporaries
Leprosy Section
Letter in Response to Previous Publication
Letter to Editor
Letter to the Editor
Letter to the Editor - Case Letter
Letter to the Editor - Letter in Response to Published Article
LETTER TO THE EDITOR - LETTERS IN RESPONSE TO PUBLISHED ARTICLES
Letter to the Editor - Observation Letter
Letter to the Editor - Study Letter
Letter to the Editor - Therapy Letter
Letter to the Editor: Articles in Response to Previously Published Articles
Letters to the Editor
Letters to the Editor - Letter in Response to Previously Published Articles
Letters to the Editor: Case Letters
Letters to the Editor: Letters in Response to Previously Published Articles
Medicolegal Window
Messages
Miscellaneous Letter
Musings
Net Case
Net case report
Net Image
Net Letter
Net Quiz
Net Study
New Preparations
News
News & Views
Obervation Letter
Obituary
Observation Letter
Observation Letters
Oration
Original Article
ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION
Original Contributions
Pattern of Skin Diseases
Pearls
Pediatric Dermatology
Pediatric Rounds
Perspective
Presedential Address
Presidential Address
Presidents Remarks
Quiz
Recommendations
Regret
Report
Report of chief editor
Report of Hon : Treasurer IADVL
Report of Hon. General Secretary IADVL
Research Methdology
Research Methodology
Resident page
Resident's Page
Resident’s Page
Residents' Corner
Residents' Corner
Residents' Page
Retraction
Review
Review Article
Review Articles
Revision Corner
Self Assessment Programme
SEMINAR
Seminar: Chronic Arsenicosis in India
Seminar: HIV Infection
Short Communication
Short Communications
Short Report
Special Article
Specialty Interface
Studies
Study Letter
Supplement-Photoprotection
Supplement-Psoriasis
Symposium - Contact Dermatitis
Symposium - Lasers
Symposium - Pediatric Dermatoses
Symposium - Psoriasis
Symposium - Vesicobullous Disorders
SYMPOSIUM - VITILIGO
Symposium Aesthetic Surgery
Symposium Dermatopathology
Symposium-Hair Disorders
Symposium-Nails Part I
Symposium-Nails-Part II
Tables
Technology
Therapeutic Guidelines
Therapeutic Guidelines - IADVL
Therapeutics
Therapy
Therapy Letter
View Point
Viewpoint
What’s new in Dermatology
Original Article
2002:68:2;82-83
PMID: 17656884

A study on the present scenario of STD management in an urban clinic in Kolkata

Sadhan Kumar Ghosh
 Department of Dermatology, Leprology and STD R.G. Kar Medical College, Calcutta - 700 004, India

Correspondence Address:
Sadhan Kumar Ghosh
Netaji Park -2, PO - Bandel, Dist. - Hooghly, Pin - 712 123
India
How to cite this article:
Ghosh S. A study on the present scenario of STD management in an urban clinic in Kolkata. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2002;68:82-83
Copyright: (C)2002 Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology

Abstract

A total of 4129 patients attended the STD clinic from 1996 to 1999. Of those 25.75% were STD cases. Male and female cases comprised 86% and 14% respectively. Majority were in the age group between 18 to 38 years. Choncroid was the commonest STD (37. 7%). Other STDs in order were syphilis (30. 66%), NGU (15.71%), gonorrhoea (7%), venereal wart (3.57%), candidiasis (2.53%), trichomonal vaginitis (1.6%), herpes genitalis (0.65%) and LGV (0.47%). No case of Donovanosis or HIV was detected. 13.7% of STD cases were reactive for VDRL test and 8% of the antenatal attendents were strongly VDRL test reactive. The urethral discharge on gram staining was positive for gonococcus, in 29%. 68% of the clinic attendents were given safer sex education and served condom.
Keywords: Sexually transmitted diseases, Management, STD

Introduction

Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) remain a public health problem of major significance in most parts of the world[1] and India is no exception. The epidemic of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has boosted the importance of the control of STD, because it is now well established that STD especially those which cause ulcers, greatly increase the risk of HIV transmission. Sexually transmitted diseases are responsible for much worldwide morbidity.[2] Different studies report a high prevalence of HIV positivity among patients who have had chancroid, syphilis or herpes genitalis.[3],[4] In this context treatment of STD promoted through the syndromic management provides health education about safe sex, partner management and condom programming. This study has been done to find out the present scenario of STD management in an urban clinic in Calcutta.

Materials and Methods

The study was conducted at the department of Dermatology, leprology and STD of R.G. Kar Medical College and Hospital, Calcutta. The material of this study comprised of all patients who attended the STD clinic from January 1996 to December 1999. Medical record sheet of patients were analyzed for the study. Trends among the various STD were understood. All relevant investigations, i.e. VDRL test and gram staining that were done to confirm were noted.

Safer sex education and condom promotion were data evaluated. The results were compiled and data analyzed.

Results

The results of the study are given in [Table - 1], [Table - 2], [Table - 3] and [Table - 4].

Discussion

Total number of patients attending the STD clinic in the years from 1996 to 1999 was 4129. Out of this 25.75% were STD cases. Others attended the clinic for check up and investigation, and sex disorders like premature ejaculation, poor erection, loss of libido and also misconception about sex organ as complained of small penis. 86% of STD cases were males and 14% were females (ratio M:F = 6:1). This may be due to conservative behavior of the female, fear of social stigma and lack of typical clinical lesions in females. Prostitutes and promiscuous individuals formed reservoir.[5],[6],[7] The spectrum of age among STD attendants were from new born to sixty, while majority were in the age group 18 to 38 years. This is the period of sex fantasy and increased sex vigor. The incidence of NGU is more than gonorrhoea in this study. This is because patients with acute gonorrhoea less frequently attend hospital clinic due to over the counter availability of highly effective antibiotics and easily accessible private practitioners. NGU is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis in about 30-50% of cases and by Ureaplasma urealyticum in a smaller percentage.′ Some studies suggest that chlamydia - negative NGU responds less well to conventional antimicrobial therapy than does chlamydia positive NGU.[9]

The lower prevalence of genital herpes and LGV in contrast to other studies[2],[10] was noteworthy. The low prevalence of genital herpes might be due to self-resolving short course of the disease and overlooking of the disease during diagnosis. The low incidence of LGV is comparable with other studies where it range from 0.1 % to 0.6% STD,[7] in contrast to higher incidence of LGV in some studies.[9],[10]

13.7% of STD cases were reactive for VDRL test and 8% of the antenatal attendents were VDRL test strongly reactive. These observations stress for continuous examination of all STD attendents and antenatal mothers for VDRL test routinely.[7],[8],[9],[10],[11]

The urethral discharge tested for gram stain was positive for gonococcus was in 29%. In another study by Ghosh et al the positivity was 26.5%.[12]

It can be concluded from this study that though some of the STDs showed a downward trend, nearly a constant management properly implimented at all level of health care system is essential for effective control of STD.

References
1.
World Health Organisation. Management of Sexually Transmitted Diseases at District and PHC Levels: South - East Asia Regional Office Publication, No.25, 1997, New Delhi, India.
[Google Scholar]
2.
Mishra M, Mishra S, Singh PC, et al. Pattern of sexually transmitted diseases at V.S.S. Medical College, Indian J Dermatol Venereal Leprol 1998;64:231-232.
[Google Scholar]
3.
Camaron DW, Simousen SN, D' Costa L, et al. Female to male transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type-1; Risk factors of seroconversion in Nairobi population. J Infec Dis 1987;155:1108.
[Google Scholar]
4.
Piolot P, Plumar FA, Rey MA, et al. Retrospective seroepidemiology of AIDS virus infection in Nairobi population. J Infect Dis 1987;155:1108.
[Google Scholar]
5.
Arndt K. Manual of Dermatologic Therapeutics, 4th edn., Boston; Little Brown and Co., 1989:135-146.
[Google Scholar]
6.
Bhargave NC, Singh OP, Lal L. Analytical study of 1000 cases of venereal diseases. Indian J Dermatol Venereal Leprol 1975;41:70-73.
[Google Scholar]
7.
Ghosh SK, Roy AK. A ten year study of STD cases in an urban clinic in Calcutta. Indian J Dermatol Venereal Leprol 1994;60:323-326.
[Google Scholar]
8.
Bowie WR. Urethritis in males. In: Holmes KK, Mardh PA, Sporting PF, Wiesner PS, eds. Sexually Tranmitted Diseases, 2nd ed. New York, Mc Grow - Hill; 1989:627-639.
[Google Scholar]
9.
Handsfield HH, Alexander ER, Wang SP, et al., Differences in the therapeutic response of chlamydia - positive and chlamydia negative forms of nongonococal urethritis. J Am Vener Dis Assoc 1976;2:59.
[Google Scholar]
10.
Krishnamurthy VR, Ramachandran V. STD trends in chengalpattu Hospital, Indian J Dermatol Venereal Leprol, 1996;62:3-12.
[Google Scholar]
11.
Mabey DCW, Lioyd - Evans NE, Conteh S, Forsey T. Sexually transmitted diseases among randomly selected attenders at an antenatal clinic in the Jambia. Br J Ven Dis 1984;60:331-336.
[Google Scholar]
12.
Ghosh SK, Ganguly U, Banerjee S, et al. A clinicoaetiological study of sexually transmitted diseases with special reference to genital discharge. Indian J Dermatol 1994;39:65-68.
[Google Scholar]
Show Sections