Generic selectors
Exact matches only
Search in title
Search in content
Search in posts
Search in pages
Filter by Categories
15th National Conference of the IAOMFP, Chennai, 2006
Abstract
Abstracts from current literature
Acne in India: Guidelines for management - IAA Consensus Document
Addendum
Announcement
Art & Psychiatry
Article
Articles
Association Activities
Association Notes
Award Article
Book Review
Brief Report
Case Analysis
Case Letter
Case Letters
Case Notes
Case Report
Case Reports
Clinical and Laboratory Investigations
Clinical Article
Clinical Studies
Clinical Study
Commentary
Conference Oration
Conference Summary
Continuing Medical Education
Correspondence
Corrigendum
Cosmetic Dermatology
Cosmetology
Current Best Evidence
Current View
Derma Quest
Dermato Surgery
Dermatopathology
Dermatosurgery Specials
Dispensing Pearl
Do you know?
Drug Dialogues
e-IJDVL
Editor Speaks
Editorial
Editorial Remarks
Editorial Report
Editorial Report - 2007
Editorial report for 2004-2005
Errata
Erratum
Focus
Fourth All India Conference Programme
From Our Book Shelf
From the Desk of Chief Editor
General
Get Set for Net
Get set for the net
Guest Article
Guest Editorial
History
How I Manage?
IADVL Announcement
IADVL Announcements
IJDVL Awards
IJDVL AWARDS 2015
IJDVL Awards 2018
IJDVL Awards 2019
IJDVL Awards 2020
IJDVL International Awards 2018
Images in Clinical Practice
In Memorium
Inaugural Address
Index
Knowledge From World Contemporaries
Leprosy Section
Letter in Response to Previous Publication
Letter to Editor
Letter to the Editor
Letter to the Editor - Case Letter
Letter to the Editor - Letter in Response to Published Article
LETTER TO THE EDITOR - LETTERS IN RESPONSE TO PUBLISHED ARTICLES
Letter to the Editor - Observation Letter
Letter to the Editor - Study Letter
Letter to the Editor - Therapy Letter
Letter to the Editor: Articles in Response to Previously Published Articles
Letters in Response to Previous Publication
Letters to the Editor
Letters to the Editor - Letter in Response to Previously Published Articles
Letters to the Editor: Case Letters
Letters to the Editor: Letters in Response to Previously Published Articles
Medicolegal Window
Messages
Miscellaneous Letter
Musings
Net Case
Net case report
Net Image
Net Letter
Net Quiz
Net Study
New Preparations
News
News & Views
Obituary
Observation Letter
Observation Letters
Oration
Original Article
ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION
Original Contributions
Pattern of Skin Diseases
Pearls
Pediatric Dermatology
Pediatric Rounds
Perspective
Presedential Address
Presidential Address
Presidents Remarks
Quiz
Recommendations
Regret
Report
Report of chief editor
Report of Hon : Treasurer IADVL
Report of Hon. General Secretary IADVL
Research Methdology
Research Methodology
Resident page
Resident's Page
Resident’s Page
Residents' Corner
Residents' Corner
Residents' Page
Retraction
Review
Review Article
Review Articles
Revision Corner
Self Assessment Programme
SEMINAR
Seminar: Chronic Arsenicosis in India
Seminar: HIV Infection
Short Communication
Short Communications
Short Report
Special Article
Specialty Interface
Studies
Study Letter
Supplement-Photoprotection
Supplement-Psoriasis
Symposium - Contact Dermatitis
Symposium - Lasers
Symposium - Pediatric Dermatoses
Symposium - Psoriasis
Symposium - Vesicobullous Disorders
SYMPOSIUM - VITILIGO
Symposium Aesthetic Surgery
Symposium Dermatopathology
Symposium-Hair Disorders
Symposium-Nails Part I
Symposium-Nails-Part II
Tables
Technology
Therapeutic Guidelines
Therapeutic Guidelines - IADVL
Therapeutics
Therapy
Therapy Letter
View Point
Viewpoint
What’s new in Dermatology
View/Download PDF
Letter to the Editor - Case Letter
2019:85:5;511-513
doi: 10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_845_18
PMID: 31368455

Atypical manifestations of disseminated cutaneous botryomycosis mimicking dermatitis herpetiformis in an immunocompetent adult woman

Rachita Misri1 , Shikha Khare1 , Meenakshi Batrani2 , HK Kar3
1 Department of Dermatology, Hindu Rao Hospital, Saket, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Dermatology, Kubba Skin Clinic, Saket, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Dermatology, Max Smart Hospital, Saket, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Shikha Khare
A-19, Single Storey, Malka Ganj, Behind Malka Ganj Post Office, New Delhi - 110 007
India
How to cite this article:
Misri R, Khare S, Batrani M, Kar H K. Atypical manifestations of disseminated cutaneous botryomycosis mimicking dermatitis herpetiformis in an immunocompetent adult woman. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2019;85:511-513
Copyright: (C)2019 Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology

Sir,

Botryomycosis is a chronic granulomatous reaction to bacterial infections. The lesions are characterized by multiple abscesses, sinus formation, fistulas and skin ulceration, mostly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Appropriate antibiotics, surgical drainage and excision are common methods that are employed to treat botryomycosis.

A 40-year-old female presented to the Dermatology Outpatient Department of a tertiary care hospital, with a history of severely pruritic skin lesions over the upper and lower extremities and abdomen since 3 months. Lesions initially started over the left ankle as intensely pruritic red papules. Later, lesions appeared on the right leg and abdomen within a few days. There was history of serous discharge in a few lesions following scratching. No constitutional symptoms were present. There was no history of prior insect bite, trauma, gastrointestinal disturbances, diabetes or any chronic illness.

On physical examination, multiple erythematous excoriated papules, and few crusted lesions were seen in a bilaterally symmetrical distribution on the extensor aspect of forearms, lower legs, abdomen, buttocks and upper back. [Figure - 1]. There were no lesions in the web spaces or over the genitalia and no family history of similar lesions. The diagnosis of scabies was ruled out and a provisional diagnosis of dermatitis herpetiformis was considered. Findings from routine blood investigations such as a hemogram, blood sugar profile, liver function and kidney function tests were all found to be within normal limits. Serological tests for HIV, HbsAg and hepatitis C virus antibodies were found negative. Histopathological examination from an excoriated papule on the ankle revealed a grain in the center of suppurative neutrophilic inflammation, in the mid-reticular dermis, with a mild surrounding lympho-histiocytic infiltrate. The granule was composed of clumped non-filamentous cocci with a peripheral eosinophilic rim (hematoxylin and eosin, ×400). Periodic acid–Schiff staining was negative [Figure - 2]a and [Figure - 2]b.

Figure 1: Multiple erythematous, excoriated papules and plaques, some of which are topped with a crust
Figure 2

Direct immunofluorescence was negative for IgG and IgA. Microbiological examination of the punch biopsy specimen showed no growth on culture. A diagnosis of cutaneous botryomycosis was made. The patient was continued on oral erythromycin and antihistamines for three more weeks along with topical fusidic acid and bland emollients, following which all the skin lesions healed with post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation [Figure - 3].

Figure 3: Post 3 weeks' antibiotic course, all lesions healed with post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation

Botryomycosis is caused by Staphylococcal aureus, but several other organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus, Propionibacterium acnes, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, peptostreptococci, Actinobacillus lignieresii and Moraxella nonliquefaciens species have been isolated singly or in combination.[1],[2],[3],[4] The proposed pathogenesis states that it could be the symbiosis of low virulence of inoculated microorganism with impaired host immunity. Predisposing factors are trauma, alcoholism, diabetes, renal disease, liver disorders, malnutrition, cystic fibrosis and immunosuppression such as in HIV.[3]

There are two forms of the disease, cutaneous and visceral. Visceral involvement occurs commonly in the lungs, although involvement of the brain, kidney, spleen and liver have been described.[5] Usually, the lesions are predominantly cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules which ulcerate, suppurate and form plaques, ulcers and sinuses, which heal slowly, and leave atrophic scars. In immunocompetent patients, lesions are found primarily on the extremities, especially in agricultural workers who do not wear footwear, and are thus subjected to repeated trauma.[6]

In our case, the presentation of disseminated, pruritic, excoriated papular lesions on the trunk and extremities in an immunocompetent patient is both unusual and atypical. No microbiological growth on culture was found maybe due to the fact that patient had taken oral erythromycin 500 mg QID for 7 days before the investigation. The authors found that these kind of lesions mimicking dermatitis herpetiformis have been reported only once, in prior literature.[5] In that particular case, the patient was immunocompetent and had lesions confined to the abdomen. The organism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus and the patient responded to 4 weeks of oral clindamycin therapy. Another similar case has been reported in a HIV positive patient, where the organism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus and the patient responded to 2 weeks of oral cephalexin. Other atypical manifestations of cutaneous botryomycosis have been tabulated in [Table - 1].

Table 1: Atypical manifestations of cutaneous botryomycosis

There is a paucity of literature on botryomycosis presenting as disseminated, itchy excoriated papules involving the trunk and extremities, which misled us in the beginning. Proper history and biopsy are warranted in patients presenting with such lesions for early diagnosis and effective treatment.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient has given her consent for her images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patient understand that name and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.[9]

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References
1.
Rubenstein E, Krulig E, Cardenas V, Kerdel FA. Botryomycosis-like pyoderma in the genital region of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive man successfully treated with dapsone. Int J Dermatol 2010;49:842-3.
[Google Scholar]
2.
Huang CF, Liaw FY, Dai NT, Ou KW, Wang CC, Wang WM. Botryomycosis presenting as nasal cutaneous fistulas caused by Prevotella melaninogenica. Clin Exp Dermatol 2012;37:501-4.
[Google Scholar]
3.
Templet JT, Straub R, Ko C. Botryomycosis presenting as pruritic papules in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient. Cutis 2007;80:45-7.
[Google Scholar]
4.
Tomb RR, Stephan F, Haddad A, Choucair J. Cutaneous granular bacteriosis, a rarely diagnosed infection of the head and the neck. Clin Exp Dermatol 2009;34:887-9.
[Google Scholar]
5.
Barreiros HM, Cunha H, Bártolo E. Photoletter to the editor: Botryomycosis in an immunocompetent woman. J Dermatol Case Rep 2013;7:29-30.
[Google Scholar]
6.
Karthikeyan K, Thappa DM, Jeevankumar B. Cutaneous botryomycosis in an agricultural worker. Clin Exp Dermatol 2001;26:456-7.
[Google Scholar]
7.
Heppt MV, Kamarashev J. Cervicofacial botryomycosis: Is atopic dermatitis a predisposing factor? Dermatopathology (Basel) 2014;1:81-5.
[Google Scholar]
8.
Elas D, Swick B, Stone MS, Miller M, Stockdale C. Botryomycosis of the vulva: A case report. J Low Genit Tract Dis 2014;18:e80-3.
[Google Scholar]
9.
Eyer-Silva WA, Silva GA, Ferry FR, Pinto JF. Facial botryomycosis-like pyoderma in an HIV-infected patient: Remission after initiation of darunavir and raltegravir. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2017;50:277-9.
[Google Scholar]

Fulltext Views
588

PDF downloads
97
Show Sections