Generic selectors
Exact matches only
Search in title
Search in content
Post Type Selectors
Filter by Categories
15th National Conference of the IAOMFP, Chennai, 2006
Abstracts from current literature
Acne in India: Guidelines for management - IAA Consensus Document
Art & Psychiatry
Association Activities
Association Notes
Award Article
Book Review
Brief Report
Case Analysis
Case Letter
Case Letters
Case Notes
Case Report
Case Reports
Clinical and Laboratory Investigations
Clinical Article
Clinical Studies
Clinical Study
Conference Oration
Conference Summary
Continuing Medical Education
Cosmetic Dermatology
Current Best Evidence
Current Issue
Current View
Derma Quest
Dermato Surgery
Dermatosurgery Specials
Dispensing Pearl
Do you know?
Drug Dialogues
Editor Speaks
Editorial Remarks
Editorial Report
Editorial Report - 2007
Editorial report for 2004-2005
Fourth All India Conference Programme
From Our Book Shelf
From the Desk of Chief Editor
Get Set for Net
Get set for the net
Guest Article
Guest Editorial
How I Manage?
IADVL Announcement
IADVL Announcements
IJDVL Awards
IJDVL Awards 2018
IJDVL Awards 2019
IJDVL Awards 2020
IJDVL International Awards 2018
Images in Clinical Practice
In Memorium
Inaugural Address
Knowledge From World Contemporaries
Leprosy Section
Letter in Response to Previous Publication
Letter to Editor
Letter to the Editor
Letter to the Editor - Case Letter
Letter to the Editor - Letter in Response to Published Article
Letter to the Editor - Observation Letter
Letter to the Editor - Study Letter
Letter to the Editor - Therapy Letter
Letter to the Editor: Articles in Response to Previously Published Articles
Letters in Response to Previous Publication
Letters to the Editor
Letters to the Editor - Letter in Response to Previously Published Articles
Letters to the Editor: Case Letters
Letters to the Editor: Letters in Response to Previously Published Articles
Medicolegal Window
Miscellaneous Letter
Net Case
Net case report
Net Image
Net Letter
Net Quiz
Net Study
New Preparations
News & Views
Observation Letter
Observation Letters
Original Article
Original Contributions
Pattern of Skin Diseases
Pediatric Dermatology
Pediatric Rounds
Presedential Address
Presidential Address
Presidents Remarks
Report of chief editor
Report of Hon : Treasurer IADVL
Report of Hon. General Secretary IADVL
Research Methdology
Research Methodology
Resident page
Resident's Page
Resident’s Page
Residents' Corner
Residents' Corner
Residents' Page
Review Article
Review Articles
Revision Corner
Self Assessment Programme
Seminar: Chronic Arsenicosis in India
Seminar: HIV Infection
Short Communication
Short Communications
Short Report
Special Article
Specialty Interface
Study Letter
Study Letters
Symposium - Contact Dermatitis
Symposium - Lasers
Symposium - Pediatric Dermatoses
Symposium - Psoriasis
Symposium - Vesicobullous Disorders
Symposium Aesthetic Surgery
Symposium Dermatopathology
Symposium-Hair Disorders
Symposium-Nails Part I
Symposium-Nails-Part II
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses
Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis
Therapeutic Guideline-IADVL
Therapeutic Guidelines
Therapeutic Guidelines - IADVL
Therapy Letter
Therapy Letters
View Point
What’s new in Dermatology
View/Download PDF

Translate this page into:

Residents' Page
87 (
); 303-305

Challenges in hair transplantation practice as a beginner

Dr Amit Kerure Skin Clinic, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Department of Dermatology, BJGMC, Pune, Maharashtra, India
Department of Dermatology, IGGMC, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
Corresponding author: Dr. Nitika Deshmukh (MBBS.MD) Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Leprosy, B.J.G.M.C, Pune-411037, Maharashtra, India.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

How to cite this article: Kerure AS, Deshmukh N, Agrawal S. Challenges in hair transplantation practice as a beginner. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2021;87:303-5.


Hair transplantation is a procedure that is steadily gaining popularity in dermatology practice in the recent times. Hair transplantation is both time-consuming and tedious. Before starting a hair transplant practice, efficient training is a pre-requisite. A long-term approach, ethical practices and the right surgical principles are essential to become a successful hair transplant surgeon.

In this competitive era, established surgeons are doing more than 3000-4000 grafts in one session, as they have a good, skilled, surgical team comprising of hair transplant surgeons, anesthesiologists and a few paramedics. This article enumerates challenges, the beginners might have to face while setting up a hair transplantation practice.

Challenges in Setting Up Hair Transplantation Practice are as follows

Competition in the field

Hair transplantation practice is considered to be a lucrative practice option.1 In the current scenario, even spas, corporate setups and non-medicos are entering this field and converting it into a business. Therefore, a beginner should always keep in mind that he or she has to survive through the competition, while practicing with ethics.


Hair transplantation is a technique, highly dependent on skill and labor. Hand and eye co-ordination are utmost essential. It cannot be learned by watching workshops, listening to lectures or seeing videos on social media. There are very few centers which offer good training. Besides, the course fees are usually very high. Hence, a beginner may find it difficult to get proper training from skilled experts.

Skill of the surgeon

Follicular unit extraction and follicular unit transplantation are skill-based techniques. In follicular unit extraction, individual follicular grafts are extracted from the occiput and implanted individually on the recipient area, under tumescent anesthesia. In follicular unit transplantation, a strip is surgically removed from the mid-occiput, slivered into separate follicular units by a paramedic or a surgeon and implanted onto the recipient area. Follicular unit extraction can be performed alone with very few nursing staff but follicular unit transplantation requires a trained doctor who is skilled in slivering follicular grafts from the strip, under magnification. The skill of the surgeon can be assessed by certain factors- such as the follicular unit transection rate, implantation time, hairline designing, patient selection, body hair transplantation and ability to perform follicular unit extraction on different types of alopecia, e.g., androgenetic alopecia in men and women, cicatricial hair loss, facial hair restoration and so on. Therefore, practice is the only key to develop these skills.

Follicular unit transection rate

The accuracy of follicular unit extraction technique is determined by keeping a low follicular unit transection rate. The follicular unit transection rate is defined as the number of grafts transected for every 100 grafts extracted. The aim should be to acquire optimum hair growth by keeping the follicular unit transection rate, less than 1%. 2 This determines the precision of the operating surgeon. To avoid transection, beginners can use a blunt punch and attain good depth control and practice proper positioning of the patient and surgeon, i.e., the prone position of the patient while performing follicular unit extraction on occiput and lateral posture while performing follicular unit extraction on temporo-parietal areas.2 Traction and counter-traction on the lax scalp helps improve accuracy.3 In case of follicular unit transplantation, slivering of the strip should be done meticulously, under appropriate magnification by a trained surgeon.

Hairline designing

Hairline design is the signature and identity of each hair transplant surgeon. It is of utmost importance and its accuracy is directly proportional to patient satisfaction. It really needs experience to get an efficient and artistic hairline. Beginners should focus upon minute details of surface anatomy and landmarks for designing a perfect hairline, for a natural look. The hairline should be irregularly irregular with a density of 25–30 grafts per cm2 as compared to the central tuft. For hairline designing, follicular grafts with 1–2 follicles should be selected for implantation and grafts with 3 to 4 hair should be implanted on the vertex to give a fuller look to the scalp, with a density of approximately 40–45grafts/cm2[Table 1].

Table 1:: Recipient area and angles while making slits4
Recipient site Angle of slit Follicular units density Pattern
Frontal hairline Acute <45° 20-30 grafts/cm2 Irregularly irregular
Temporal areas Acute <45° 30-35 grafts/cm2 Radial pattern extending outwards or patient’s natural pattern of hair-angles
Vertex 45° 40-45 grafts/cm2 Whorled pattern

Body hair transplant

Body hair grows in different directions, lie in the upper dermis which has dense collagen and therefore, extraction is more difficult as compared to scalp hair. Body hair is utilized when the safe donor zone of scalp is exhausted. In such situations, body hair from chest, legs, beard and moustache area, axillae or pubic hair are used for transplanting onto the scalp. Beginners should focus on scalp hair transplantation techniques and on lower grades of androgenetic alopecia initially and when they acquire the necessary expertise, should add more indications of hair transplant to their skills portfolio.

Anesthesia for hair transplantation

Anesthesia can be performed via various techniques with or without nerve blocks, followed by ring block and infiltration:

  1. Nerve blocks such as supraorbital and supratrochlear blocks given with 2% lignocaine with adrenaline

  2. Ring block along the periphery of the recipient area with 2% lignocaine and adrenaline

  3. Tumescent anesthesia is given after ring block in the recipient area. Tumescent anesthesia is made with triamcinolone (40mg/ml) + xylocaine (2%) + epinephrine, 1:1000 (1mL) + normal saline (100mL)

A beginner needs to learn the right technique of using tumescent anesthesia for hair transplant surgery. Tumescent anesthesia comprises of subcutaneous injections of relatively large volumes of diluted lignocaine and epinephrine. Authors prefer to use lower concentrations of epinephrine or adrenaline in the tumescent mixture while doing hair transplantation surgery, as it may lead to acute loss of hair follicles post-surgery. Besides, triamcinolone acetonide (40mg/mL) can be added to the tumescent solution to avoid post-operative edema and inflammation.


While creating slits for the implantation of follicular units, it is imperative to follow proper angles on different areas of the scalp[Table 1]. Otherwise, it may lead to an unnatural look to the patient. The depth of slit is also equally important as the ‘too deep’ placement of follicular units may lead to folliculitis and ‘cobble stoning’ at the recipient site. Too shallow slits may lead to popping of grafts.4


For beginners, the graft implantation procedure may require a much longer time as compared to a skilled surgeon. This may lead to lesser yield of surgery because of the longer “out of body time” of the graft. So, it is advisable to take help from a trained assistant. Avoid doing mega sessions in the early phase of practice; beginners can assist senior surgeons in performing and learning mega and giga sessions of hair transplantation.

Case selection

The zest to do many cases along with the financial burden/ incentive may force a newcomer to select every patient who asks for hair transplant surgery. Being less experienced in surgery and wrong patient selection- like patients with poor donor area, androgenetic alopecia of Norwood Hamilton grade IV or more, or medically unfit patients- may result in an unsatisfactory outcome or may lead to complications like failure of surgery, dermatosurgical emergencies, patient dissatisfaction etc., A complete preoperative dermatological evaluation to determine the type of alopecia and preanesthetic medical fitness is a must to avoid these untoward complications.

Hair transplant in women

Surgical management of patterned hair loss in women is challenging as it is multi-factorial and poorly defined. Hair loss in women can be chronic telogen effluvium presenting as diffuse thinning of hair. Post operative shock loss, being common in female patients, results of hair transplantation in women are often delayed. Hence, beginners are advised not to venture upon operating female patients with hair loss at the start of their career.

Scarring alopecia

Scarring alopecia is another area where one needs expertise to perform hair transplantation. Beginners should avoid altogether or perform hair transplantation in scarring alopecia under the supervision of experienced surgeons due to the variable factors such as underlying disease pathology, cause of scarring, fragile tissue, activity in the diseased patch as reported in the histopathological examination, possibility of koebenerization, skin texture and condition of underlying dermis or subcutis.5 The chances of graft survival are low in scarring alopecia as the blood circulation is compromised due to lesser vasculature.5

Establishing Hair Transplant Setup

While setting up a hair transplant clinic one needs to have:6

  • A good location

  • Updated instruments

  • Comfortable infrastructure

  • Signboard, Logo, impressive interior and entrance

  • Comfortable operative table and set up (multiparameter pulse oximeter, hair transplant OT bed, OT lights, comfortable stools and chairs).

  • Anesthesia trolley and crash cart including emergency drugs (adrenaline, atropine, dopamine, sodium bicarbonate, IV fluids etc), Ambu bag, intubation equipment and oxygen supply.

  • A trained team of doctors (one to two hair transplant surgeons, anesthesiologist) and paramedics

  • Autoclave

  • Marketing strategy

  • Financial aid.

Developing a team

Hair transplantation is a team work and the results are directly dependent on the quality of the work of the staff. Getting full time, dedicated and skilled staff for hair transplantation is difficult. Training, multitasking and maintaining the team are again, challenging things.

Preoperative evaluation

Preoperative evaluation in the form of trichoscopy or histopathology (wherever indicated) to determine the type of alopecia (scarring/nonscarring), assessment of the grade of androgenetic alopecia, pre-anesthetic fitness, evaluation of comorbid conditions etc., helps a surgeon to practice safely with optimum results.

Preoperative documentation

Documentation and record-keeping play a pivotal role in any dermato-surgical practice. An informed written consent form, pre-operative information sheet of do’s and dont’s for the patient, pre-operative checklist mentioning details about pre-medication and postoperative notes and advice with follow-up sheet with all postoperative drug list with appropriate doses; is mandatory. Clinical photographs before surgery and during each subsequent visit are crucial for tracking improvement in hair growth.

Achieving patient satisfaction

Achieving patient satisfaction is one of the most difficult jobs. Optimum patient selection and good accuracy in hair transplant surgery is the key to achieve ultimate patient satisfaction.

Dealing with complications and emergencies

Patients must undergo a pre-anesthetic fitness. A thorough trichoscopic evaluation is a must to rule out other causes of alopecia such as alopecia areata, frontal fibrosing alopecia etc., He/she must be properly treated for the basic underlying or associated comorbid ailments. A surgeon must be well-trained in basic life support techniques and should be capable of managing dermatosurgical emergencies such as vasovagal syncope, anaphylaxis, lignocaine toxicity etc., Mega-sessions are a bit riskier as they require a large amount of anesthetic agents and are associated with more fluid and blood loss. So, it is best to avoid mega and giga sessions in the initial phases of practice. A senior doctor proves to be of great help in the initial phases. It is safe to have an anesthesiologist attending the surgery to manage complications.


There is an increasing demand for publicity and marketing on social media as well as print media. People are nowadays hiring marketing teams for clinic advertising. A beginner may not be able to invest in the early phase. Mouth-to-mouth publicity by the satisfied and happy patient is the best marketing tool for a beginner. In an attempt to attract more patients, a doctor should be particularly careful to avoid unethical advertisements and fake commitments like unlimited grafts, 100% guarantee of hair growth and so on.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.


  1. India a potential market for hair restoration services. The Hindu business line. Available from: [Last published on 2013 Dec 25;Last accessed on 2020 Mar 10]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. , , . Dos and don'ts of follicular unit extraction In: , , , , , eds. Hair Transplantation. New Delhi: Jaypee the Health Sciences Publisher; . p. 205-12.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  3. , , . Kerure clamp: A new age tool to improve extraction technique in follicular unit extraction. J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2019;12:141-4.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  4. , . Recipient area. J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2018;11:202-10.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  5. , . Hair transplantation for scarring alopecia In: , , , , , eds. Hair Transplantation. New Delhi: Jaypee the Health Sciences Publisher; . p. 353-6.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. , . Standard guidelines for setting up a dermatosurgery theatre. IJDVL2009;. ;75:76-82.
    [Google Scholar]
Show Sections