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Letter to the Editor
2012:78:4;490-491
doi: 10.4103/0378-6323.98083

"Sines" of dermatology

Sudhir U. K. Nayak, Shrutakirthi D Shenoi
 Department of Dermatology, Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Manipal University, Manipal - 576104, India

Correspondence Address:
Sudhir U. K. Nayak
Department of Dermatology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal-576104
India
How to cite this article:
Nayak SU, Shenoi SD. "Sines" of dermatology. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2012;78:490-491
Copyright: (C)2012 Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology

Polymorphic light eruption sine eruption [1]

Polymorphic light eruption sine eruption is a variant of polymorphic light eruption (PLE), which is characterized by an intense pruritus on the sun-exposed areas without the development of any cutaneous lesions. The pruritus usually develops by 45 minutes to a day, and subsides by 1 to 5 days.

Dermatomyositis sine myositis [2]

This is a historic term, which has now been replaced by the term amyopathic dermatomyositis, which is a subset of dermatomyositis. This terminology is used when there is a biopsy-proven hallmark skin lesion of cutaneous dermatomyositis without any presence of muscle involvement for 6 months or longer. There should be neither clinical evidence of proximal muscle involvement nor any abnormalities in serum muscle enzymes. Other investigations for muscle involvement like electromyogram, muscle biopsy, etc., should be normal if done. Treatment with immunosuppressive drugs for 2 months or more within 6 months of onset of cutaneous lesions and use of drugs like hydroxyurea and statins, which are capable of producing dermatomyositis like cutaneous changes, are exclusion criteria for amyopathic dermatomyositis.

Systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma [3]

Systemic sclerosis or scleroderma is characterized by the presence of thickening and induration of the skin. The terminology "systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma" refers to those patients of systemic sclerosis who do not show cutaneous features of systemic sclerosis but exhibit vascular (like Raynaud′s phenomenon), immunologic findings and internal organ involvement as seen in systemic sclerosis. These comprise of nearly 1% of all systemic sclerosis patients.

Pellagra sine pellagra [4]

Pellagra sine pellagra refers to those patients who manifest clinical features of pellagra in the absence of the classical cutaneous photosensitive dermatosis like Casal′s necklace, gauntlet of pellagra. This is seen in those patients of pellagra who do not go outdoors (thus avoiding photoexposure) and also among patients with riboflavin deficiency, rather than niacin deficiency.

Zoster sine herpete: (Syn: Zoster sine eruptione)

Herpes zoster is characterized by the occurrence of grouped vesicles on an erythematous base in a dermatomal pattern. The onset of the eruptions is preceded by sharp pain 2 - 4 days prior. However, in some patients, this pain is not followed by the occurrence of any cutaneous lesions. This is known as zoster sine herpete.

Malignant acanthosis nigricans sine malignancy [5]

Malignant acanthosis nigricans is very similar to acanthosis nigricans in clinical appearance, but is usually sudden in onset, progressive, darker and extensive. It also involves the mucosal surfaces and palms. Malignant acanthosis nigricans may occur simultaneously, precede or follow occurrence of an internal malignancy and subsides with removal of the malignancy. The term malignant acanthosis nigricans sine malignancy is used when the patient presents with malignant acanthosis nigricans and extensive evaluation and investigations fail to reveal the presence of any malignancy.

Acne fulminans sine fulminans

Acne fulminans is a rare form of acne, characterized by an acute onset of cystic acne, which tends to rupture leading to ulcerations, along with systemic symptoms like fever, malaise, polyarthropathy, anorexia etc. Acne fulminans sine fulminans is a variant, which presents with cutaneous lesions, similar to acne fulminans but with minimum or nil systemic features.

Eruptive seborrheic keratosis sine malignancy

The sudden eruptive onset or sudden increase in the size of existing seborrheic keratosis, often referred to as the Leser-Trelat sign, is associated with malignancy, especially adenocarcinomas of the gastro-intestinal system. Eruptive seborrheic keratosis sine malignancy or the false Leser-Trelat refers to the condition of eruptive seborrheic keratosis where extensive investigations fail to reveal the presence of any malignancy.

Pruritus sine materia

The terminology pruritus sine materia is used to describe those conditions of pruritus, which occur on non-inflamed, non-diseased skin and includes pruritus secondary to systemic, neurological, psychosomatic or psychiatric origin and even pruritus that occurs in elderly people.

Linear melorheostotic scleroderma with hypertrichosis sine melorheostosis

Linear melorheostotic scleroderma is a condition, which is characterized by linear scleroderma like changes with cortical hyperostosis of the bones, exhibiting a dripping of burning candle-like appearance on radiography. However, the term linear melorheostotic scleroderma with hypertrichosis sine melorheostosis is used when the scleroderma like changes is seen with an increased growth of hair, but the characteristic bone changes are absent.

Lupus sine lupo

The cutaneous lesions of lupus erythematosus are categorized into specific and non-specific on the basis of the Gilliam classification. The term lupus sine lupo is used when the patient fails to have any specific lesions of lupus erythematosus.

Psoriatic arthritis sine psoriasis

This terminology refers to those patients who present with symptoms and signs of psoriatic arthritis but without any cutaneous psoriatic lesions, however, have a history of psoriasis in a first or second degree relative.

Eccrine hidradenitis sine neutrophils

Eccrine hidradenitis, often referred to as neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis, is a condition, characterized histopathologically with eccrine degeneration and surrounding neutrophilic infiltrate often described post chemotherapy or associated with infectious agents. In eccrine hidradenitis sine neutrophils, the surrounding neutrophil infiltrate is deficient.

Necrobiosis lipoidica sine diabetes

Necrobiosis lipoidica is closely associated with diabetes with nearly 70% of the patients exhibiting diabetes. The term necrobiosis lipoidica sine diabetes is used to describe those patients of necrobiosis lipoidica who do not have diabetes. However, necrobiosis lipoidica can precede the onset of diabetes in nearly 15% of the patients.

References
1.
Dover JS, Garmyn MA, Hawk JLM. Polymorphic light eruption sine eruption. Br J Dermatol 1985;113:12.
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2.
Sontheimer RD. Dermatomyositis: An overview of recent progress with emphasis on dermatologic aspects. Dermatol Clin 2002;20:387-408.
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Denton CP, Black CM. Scleroderma (Systemic Sclerosis). In: Wolff K, Goldsmith LA, Katz SI, Gicherst BA, Paller AS, Leffell DJ, editors. Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in general medicine. 7 th ed. New York: Mc Graw Hill; 2008. p. 1556.
th ed. New York: Mc Graw Hill; 2008. p. 1556.'>[Google Scholar]
4.
Patnaik R, Chowdary TN, Sesikeran B, Satyanath RV, Kumar PU. Nutrition and the skin. In: Valia RG, Valia AR, editors. IADVL textbook of dermatology. 3 rd ed. Mumbai: Bhalani Publishing House; 2008. p. 1273-7.
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Jeevankumar B, Thappa BM, Karthikeyan K. Malignant acanthosis nigricans sine malignancy. Indian J Dermatol 2003;48:176-8.
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